英文文法重點整理(1)


文法整理摘錄自 Betty S. Azar 的基礎英文文法書,若有侵權,煩請來信告知,我將於第一時間刪除所有相關文章。

第一章節:使用 Be

1-1 單數代名詞 + Be

  1. I am late.
  2. You are late.
  3. She is late.
  4. He is late.
  5. It is late.
  6. Maria (She) is late.
  7. Tom (He) is late.
  8. Bus 10 (It) is late.

1-2 複數代名詞 + Be

  1. We are here.
  2. You are here.
  3. They are here.
  4. Sam and I (We) are here.
  5. Sam and you (You) are here.
  6. Sam and Lisa (They) are here.

1-3 單數名詞 + Be

  1. Canada is a country.
    • Canada = 單數名詞,is = 單數動詞,country = 單數名詞,“a” 出現在單數名詞之前;在例句中,“a” 就出現在單數名詞 country 之前。
    • “a” 叫做冠詞(article)
  2. Bali is an island.
    • “a” 和 “an” 是一樣的意思,也都是冠詞(article)。
    • “a” 是使用在子音(除了母音之外的所有字母)之前的,例如:b, c, d, f, g… 等等,Example: a bed, a cat, a dog, a friend, a girl
    • “an” 是使用在母音之前的,例如:a, e, i, o, u,Example: an animal, an ear, an island, an office.
    • 特例:u 之前有時候不是用 “an”,例如:a university

1-4 複數名詞 + Be

  1. Cats are animals.
    • Cats = 複數名詞,are = 複數動詞,animals = 複數名詞
  2. 單數:a cat, an animal,複數:cats, animals
    • 複數名詞用 -s 結尾,“a” 和 “an” 只能用在單數名詞
  3. 單數:a city, a country, 複數:cities, countries
    • 有些單數名詞以 -y 結尾的,有特別的複數形式:去 -yies
  4. Canada and China are countries.
    • 兩個名詞以 and 連接,後面會接著 are,兩個名詞在一起表示是複數的。

1-5 Be 的縮寫形式

  1. AM 的縮寫
    • I + am => I’m
  2. IS 的縮寫
    • she + is => she’s
    • he + is => he’s
    • it + is => it’s
  3. ARE 的縮寫
    • you + are => you’re
    • we + are => we’re
    • they + are => they’re
  4. 備註
    • 當人們在說話的時候,常常將兩個字放在一起,縮寫就是將兩個字放在一起。
    • 主詞代名詞 + be 常常被用在寫作和口說
    • 縮寫中間的撇號稱為 “apostrophe” (')

1-6 Be 的否定詞

  1. 否定詞的縮寫形式
    • I am not a teacher.
      • 縮寫:I'm not
    • You are not a teacher.
      • 縮寫:you're not / you aren’t
    • She is not a teacher.
      • 縮寫:she's not / she isn’t
    • He is not a teacher.
      • 縮寫:he's not / he isn’t
    • It is not a city.
      • 縮寫:it's not / it isn’t
    • We are not teachers.
      • 縮寫:we're not / we aren’t
    • You are not teachers.
      • 縮寫:you're not / you aren’t
    • They are not teachers.
      • 縮寫:they're not / they aren’t
  2. 備註:
    • not 讓句子成為否定。
    • benot 可以被縮寫。
    • “I am” 跟 be 只有一種縮寫形式,其餘和 be 皆有兩種縮寫形式。

1-7 Be + 形容詞

  1. 名詞 + Be + 形容詞
    • A ball is round.
    • Balls are round.
    • Mary is intelligent.
    • Mary and Tom are intelligent.
  2. 代名詞 + Be + 形容詞
    • I am hungry.
    • She is young.
    • They are happy.
  3. 備註:
    • 形容詞常常跟隨一種形式的 be (am, is, are)。
    • 形容詞提供在句首的名詞和代名詞的資訊,在句首的名詞和代名詞叫做『主詞』。

1-8 Be + 地方

  1. Maria is here. / Bob is at the library
    • here 是一個地方。
    • at the library 是一個地方。
    • be 常常在後面加上一個地方
  2. Maria is here. / there. / downstairs. / upstairs. / inside. / outside. / downtown.
    • 地方可以只有一個詞。
  3. Bob is at the library. / on the bus. / in his room. / at work. / next Maria.
    • 地方可能是個介系詞組(介系詞 + 名詞)
  4. 常見介系詞
    • on / in / next to / above / under / behind / from / at / between

1-9 Be 的基本句型模式

  1. I am a student.
    • 在句子最前面的名詞或代名詞稱為『主詞』。
  2. He is intelligent.
    • be 是『動詞』,幾乎所有的英文句子都有一個主詞和一個動詞。
  3. We are in class. / She is upstairs.
    • 基本的完整句子是一個主詞 + be 動詞 + 名詞 / 形容詞 / 地方。

第二章節:使用 Be 和 Have

2-1 Be 的 Yes/No 問題

  1. Am I early? => I am early.
  2. Is Ana a student? => Ana is a student.
  3. Are they at home? => They are at home.
  4. 備註
    • 在問題中,be 會出現在主詞前面。
    • 問題的結尾用 ?(question mark),回答的結尾用 .(period)。

2-2 Yes/No 問題的簡答

  1. Is Kari a student? => Yes, she is. / No, she’s not. / No, she isn’t.
  2. Are they at home? => Yes, they are. / No, they aren’t. / No, they’re not.
  3. Are you ready? => Yes, I am. / No, I’m not.
  4. 備註:
    • yes 的簡答不能使用縮寫。以下為錯誤的範例:Yes, she’s. / Yes, they’re. / Yes, I’m.

2-3 Be 的問題:使用 Where

  1. Where 問的是地方,Where出現在句首,be 之前。
  2. 問題 => 簡答(長回答)
    • Is the book on the table? => Yes, it is. (The book is on the table.)
    • Are the books on the table? => Yes, they are. (The books are on the table.)
  3. Where 問題 => 簡答(長回答)
    • Where is the book? => On the table. (The book is on the table.)
    • Where are the books? => On the table. (The books are on the table.)

2-4 使用 Have 和 Has

  1. 單數
    • I have a pen.
    • You have a pen.
    • She has a pen.
    • He has a pen.
    • It has a pen.
  2. 複數
    • We have pens.
    • You have pens.
    • They have pens.
  3. 備註
    • I / you / we / they + have
    • she / he / it + has

2-5 使用 My, Your, Her, His, Our, Their

  1. 單數
    • I have a book. My book is red.
    • You have a book. Your book is red.
    • She has a book. Her book is red.
    • He has a book. His book is red.
  2. 複數
    • We have books. Our books are red.
    • You have books. Your books are red.
    • They have books. Their books are red.
  3. 備註
    • 主格 => 所有格
      • I => my
      • you => your
      • she => her
      • he => his
      • we => our
      • they => their
    • I possess a book. = I have a book = It is my book.
    • my, your, her, his, our, their 稱為『所有格』,他們放在名詞前面

2-6 使用 This 和 That

  1. this book = 書在我附近,that book = 書不在我附近
    • I have a book in my hand. This book is red.
    • I see a book on your desk. That book is blue.
    • This is my book.
    • That is your book.
  2. 縮寫:that is = that’s
    • That’s her book.
  3. 在英文口說中,this is 的發音為 “this’s”,但是不能使用在寫作當中。
    • This is (“This’s”) her book.

2-7 使用 These 和 Those

  1. this 的複數為 these,that 的複數為 those
    • My books are on my desk. These are my books.
    • Your books are on your desk. Those are your books.

2-8 用 What 和 Who 提出問題 + Be

  1. What 是問關於物品;Who 是問關於人。is 後面會跟著單數詞;are 後面會跟著複數詞。
    • What is this(thing)? It’s a pen.
    • Who is that(person)? That’s Mr. Lee.
    • What are those(things)? They’re pens.
    • Who are they? They’re Mr. and Mrs. Lee.
  2. 縮寫:what is = what’s, who is = who’s
    • What’s this?
    • Who’s that man?

第三章 使用現在簡單式

3-1 現在簡單式的格式和基本意思

  1. 第三人稱單數(she, he, it)的動詞會加上 -s,例如:talks
    • I talk.
    • You talk.
    • He talks.
    • She talks.
    • It rains.
    • We talk.
    • They talk.
  2. 簡單現在是表達習慣。
    • I eat breakfast every morning.
    • Olga speaks English every day.
    • We sleep every night.
    • They go to the beach every weekend.

3-2 頻率副詞

  1. 主詞 + always(100%) / usually / often / sometimes(50%) / seldom / rarely / never(0%) + 動詞,這些詞彙稱為『頻率副詞』,他們通常出現在主詞和簡單現在動詞中間。(有些頻率副詞也可以出現在句首或是句尾,例如:Sometimes I get up at seven. / I sometimes get up at seven. / I get up at seven sometimes.)
    • Ivan always eats breakfast.
    • Maria usually eats breakfast.
    • They often watch TV.
    • We sometimes watch TV.
    • Sam seldom drinks milk.
    • Rita rarely drinks milk.
    • I never drink milk.
  2. 其他頻率表達:我們可以用一年/一個月/一週/一天內發生多少次來表達頻率
    • I drink tea once a day. / two times(twice) a day. / three times a day. / four times a day.
    • I see my grandparents three times a week.
    • I see my aunt once a month.
    • I see my cousin Sam twice a year.
  3. every 是單數,在 every 後面的名詞必須是單數:錯誤範例:every mournings。
    • I dee my doctor every year.

3-3 頻率副詞的位置

  1. 頻率副詞會在現在簡單式 be 的後面:am, is, are
    • 主詞 + BE + 頻率副詞
    • I am always late.
    • You are usually late.
    • He is often late.
    • She is sometimes late.
    • It is seldom late.
    • We are rarely late.
    • They are never late.
  2. 頻率副詞會出現在所有簡單現在動詞之前,除了 be 以外。
    • 主語 + 頻率副詞 + 其它簡單現在動詞
    • Tom always comes late.
    • Tom usually comes late.
    • Tom often comes late.
    • Tom sometimes comes late.
    • Tom seldom comes late.
    • Tom rarely comes late.
    • Tom never comes late.

3-4 結尾 -es 的拼寫和發音

  1. 動詞結尾:-sh, -ch, -ss, -x,拼寫:加上 -es,讀音:/əz/。
    • push => pushes => push/əz/
    • teach => teaches => teach/əz/
    • kiss => kisses => kiss/əz/
    • fix => fixes => fix/əz/

3-5 結尾為 -y 加上 -s/-es

  1. 動詞結尾:子音 + -y,拼寫:改 yi,並加上 -es
    • cry => cries
    • try => tries
  2. 動詞結尾:母音 + -y,拼寫:加 -s
    • pay => pays
    • enjoy => enjoys

3-6 不規則單數動詞:Has, Does, Goes

  1. have, do, go 有不規則的第三人稱單數,have => has, do => does, go => goes,結尾 -s 發音為 /z/
    • I have a book.
    • He has(/hæz/) a book.
    • I do my work.
    • She does(/dəz/) her work.
    • They go to school.
    • She goes(/gowz/) to school.

3-7 Like To, Want To, Need To

  1. like, want, need 後面要加上不定詞,不定詞 = to + 動詞原形。need towant to 還強烈,need to = 必要的,重要的。
    • I like to travel. It’s fun.
    • I want to travel. I have vacation time next month.
    • I need to travel. for my job. I have no choice.

3-8 現在簡單式:否定

  1. 否定:I / You / We / They + do not + 主要動詞,He / She / It + does not + 主要動詞。dodoes 稱為『助動詞』。在第三人稱單數中,主要動詞不加上 s-s 加在助動詞上了。
    • I do not drink coffee.
    • You do not drink coffee.
    • We do not drink coffee.
    • They do not drink coffee.
    • He does not drink coffee.
    • She does not drink coffee.
    • It does not drink coffee.
  2. 縮寫:do not = don’t, does not = doesn’t,大家經常(usually)在說話用縮寫,寫作時常常(often)使用縮寫。
    • I don’t drink coffee.
    • He doesn’t drink coffee.

3-9 現在簡單式:Yes/No 問題

  1. 現在簡單式的問題形式:Do I / Do you / Does he / Does she / Does it / Do we / Do they + 主要動詞(原形)。主要動詞沒有結尾 -s,結尾 -s 已經在 does 中了。
    • Do I work?
    • Do you work?
    • Does he work?
    • Does she work?
    • Does it work?
    • Do we work?
    • Do they work?
  2. 當主要動詞是 be 的形式,do不能使用,參考 2-1
    • Am I late?
    • Are you ready?
    • Is he a teacher?
    • Are we early?
    • Are they at home?
    • Are you a student?
    • 錯誤範例:Do you be a student?
  3. do, don’t, does, doesn’t 可以用在現在簡單式的 yes/no 問題,並當作簡答。
    • Do you like fish? => Yes, I do. / No, I don’t.
    • Does Liam like fish? => Yes, he does. / No, he doesn’t.
  4. do 也可以當作主要動詞。
    • Brad does his homework.
    • Does Brad do his homework?

3-10 現在簡單式:用 Where 和 What 詢問資訊問題

  1. Where 詢問地點的資訊,問 yes/no 問題的格式和問資訊問題的格式是一樣的:Do/Does + 主詞 + 主要動詞
    • Do they live in Miami? Yes, they do. / No, they don’t.
    • Where do they live? In Miami.
    • Does Gina live in Rome? Yes, she does. / No, she doesn’t.
    • Where does Gina live? In Rome.
  2. What 詢問事情的資訊。
    • Do they need help? Yes, she does. / No, she doesn’t.
    • What do they need? Help.
    • Does Lee need help? Yes, he does. / No, he doesn’t.
    • What does Lee need? Help.

3-11 現在簡單式:用 When 和 What Time 詢問資訊問題

  1. whenwhat time 詢問時間的資訊
    • When do you go to class? At nine o’clock.
    • What time do you go to class? At nine o’clock.
    • When does Anna eat dinner? At six P.M.
    • What time does Anna eat dinner? At six P.M.
  2. 頻率副詞通常會直接接在問題的主詞後面:Question word + does/do + 主詞 + usually + 主要動詞
    • What time do you usually go to class?
Share