英文文法重點整理(2)


文法整理摘錄自 Betty S. Azar 的基礎英文文法書,若有侵權,煩請來信告知,我將於第一時間刪除所有相關文章。

第四章 使用現在進行式

4-1 Be + -ing:現在進行式

  1. 當說一個句子,I am in class. I am sitting. I am not standing. 這個動作(sitting)就是當下在發生的,而且我同時把這個句子說出來。am, is, are 是助動詞,sitting 是主要動詞。am, is, are + -ing = 現在進行式
    • am + -ing, I am sitting in class right now.
    • is + -ing, Rita is sitting in class right now.
    • are + -ing, You are sitting in class right now.

4-2 -ing 的拼法

  1. 規則一:子音 + -e => 去 -e-ing
    • smile => smiling
    • write => writing
  2. 規則二:母音 + 子音 => 重複子音 + -ing
    • sit => sitting
    • run => running
    • 特例:w, x, y 不重複,例如:snow => snowing, fix => fixing, say => saying
  3. 規則三:兩個母音 + 一個子音 => 加 -ing;不重複子音
    • read => reading
    • rain => raining
  4. 規則四:兩個子音 => 加 -ing;不重複子音
    • stand => standing
    • push => pushing

4-3 現在進行式:否定

  1. 現在進行式否定:am/is/are + not + -ing
    • I am not sleeping. I am awake.
    • Ben isn’t listening. He’s daydreaming.
    • Mr. and Mrs. Silva aren’t watching TV. They’re reading.

4-4 現在進行式:問句

  1. 問句 => 短回答(長回答)
    • Is Marta sleeping? => Yes, she is. (She’s sleeping.) / No, she’s not. (She’s not sleeping.) / No, she isn’t. (She isn’t sleeping.)
    • Are you watching TV? => Yes, I am. (I’m watching TV.) / No, I’m not. (I’m not watching TV.)
  2. 現在進行式:疑問詞的問句
    • Where is Marta sleeping? => In bed. (She’s sleeping in bed.)
    • What is Ted watching? => A movie. (Ted is watching a movie.)
    • Why are you watching TV? => Because I like this program. (I’m watching TV because I like this program.)

4-5 現在簡單式 vs. 現在進行式

  1. 定義
    • 現在簡單式表達習慣或是日常活動,常用的時間詞為 every day, every year, every month, often, sometimes, never,現在簡單式還常用 dodoes 在否定句和問句。
    • 現在進行式表達當下正在進行的動作,而且說話者正在說話,常用的時間詞為 now, right now, today,現在進行式還常用 am, is, are 在否定句和問句。
  2. 陳述句
    • 現在簡單式
    • I talk every day.
    • You talk every day.
    • He, She, it talks every day.
    • We talk every day.
    • They talk every day.
    • 現在進行式
    • I am talking now.
    • You are talking now.
    • He, She, it is talking now.
    • We are talking now.
    • They are talking now.
  3. 否定句
    • 現在簡單式
    • I don’t talk.
    • You don’t talk.
    • He, She, It doesn’t talk.
    • We don’t talk.
    • They don’t talk.
    • 現在進行式
    • I am not talking.
    • You are not talking.
    • He, She, It is not talking.
    • We are not talking.
    • They are not talking.
  4. 問句
    • 現在簡單式
    • Do I talk?
    • Do you talk?
    • Does he, she, it talk?
    • Do we talk?
    • Do they talk?
    • 現在進行式
    • Am I talking?
    • Are you talking?
    • Is he, she, it talking?
    • Are we talking?
    • Are they talking?

4-6 非行為動詞不能用在現在進行式

  1. 有些動詞不能被用在現在進行式,他們叫做『非行為動詞』。want 是一個非行為動詞,want 表達的是身體或心理需求,不是一種行為;hear 是一個非行為動詞,hear 表達的是感官的體驗,不是一種行為。
    • I’m hungry right now. I want an apple. 錯誤:I am wanting an apple.
    • I hear a siren. Do you hear it too? 錯誤:I’m hearing a siren. Are you hearing it too?
  2. 非行為動詞
    • dislike / hate / like / love / need / want
    • hear / see / smell / taste
    • believe / know / think (有時候被當作進行式動詞-參考 4-8) / understand

4-7 See, Look At, Watch, Hear, Listen To

  1. see = 非行為動詞,seeing 會發生是因為眼睛打開,seeing 是一種身體行為,不是一個計畫好的行為;look at = 行為動詞,looking 是一種計畫好的或有目的的行為,looking 會發生是有理由的;watch = 行為動詞,我會長時間 watch 某樣東西,短時間 look at 某樣東西。
    • I see many things in this room.
    • I’m looking at the clock. I want to know the time.
    • Bob is watching TV.
  2. hear = 非行為動詞,hearing 是一種非計畫性行為,他表達的是一種身體行為。listen (to) = 行為動詞,listening 發生是有目的的。
    • I’m in my apartment. I’m trying to study. I hear music form the next apartment. The music is loud.
    • I’m in my apartment. I’m studying. I have an iPod. I’m listening to music. I like to listen to music when I study.

4-8 Think About 和 Think That

  1. think about + 一個名詞
    • I think about my family every day. (關於家人的想法每天都在我心裡)
    • I am thinking about grammar right now. (我的心裡很慌亂,關於文法的想法現在就在我心裡)
  2. think that + 一個陳述句:人們使用 think that 當他們想要表達自己相信的事情。
    • I think that Emma is lazy. (在我看來,Emma 很懶惰,我相信 Emma 很懶惰) 錯誤:I am thinking that Emma is lazy.
    • Ed thinks that I am lazy.
    • I think that the weather is nice.
  3. 現在進行式常常跟 think about 一起使用,現在進行式則幾乎不使用 think that
  4. 人們常常省略在 think 後面的 that,尤其是在口說的時候。
    • I think that Marco is a nice person.
    • I think Marco is a nice person.

第五章 談論現在

5-1 使用 It 談論時間

  1. 在英文中,人們使用 it 表達時間。
    • What day is it? => It’s Monday.
    • What month is it? => It’s September.
    • What year is it? => It’s (2014).
    • What’s the date today? => It’s September 15th. / It’s the 15th of September.
    • What time is it? => It’s 9:00. (美式英語使用冒號(:)在小時和分之間;英式英語使用點(.)在小時和分之間) / It’s nine. / It’s nine o’clock. / It’s 9:00 A.M.

5-2 時間介系詞

  1. ATat + 時鐘上的準確時間,at + night
    • We have class at one o’clock.
    • I have an appointment with the doctor at 3:00.
    • We sleep at night.
  2. INin + 一個準確的月份,in + 一個準確的年,in + the morning,in + the afternoon,in + the evening
    • My birthday is in October.
    • I was born in 1989.
    • We have class in the morning.
    • Bob has class in the afternoon.
    • I study in the evening.
  3. ONon + 一週中準確的一天,on + 一個準確日期
    • I have class on Monday(s).
    • I was born on October 31.
    • I was born on Octover 31, 1991.
  4. FROM…TOfrom(一個準確的時間)to(一個準確的時間)
    • We have class from 1:00 to 2:00.

5-3 使用 It 和 What 談論天氣

  1. 在英文中,當說到天氣的時候,人們通常使用 it
    • It’s sunny today.
    • It’s hot and humid today.
    • It’s a nice day today.
  2. 人們通常用 What’s the weather like? 或是 How’s the weather 詢問天氣。What 通常使用在詢問溫度。
    • What’s the weather like in Istanbul in January?
    • How’s the weather in Moscow in the summer?
    • What’s the temperature in Bangkok today?

5-4 There + Be

  1. There + be 用來說某物存在於一個特定地點,注意:主詞接在 be 後面:there is + 單數名詞,there are + 複數名詞
    • There is a bird in the tree.
    • There are four birds in the tree.
  2. 縮寫:there + is = there’s,there + are = there’re
    • There’s a bird in the tree.
    • There’re four birds in the tree.

5-5 There + Be:Yes/No 問句

  1. Is there an apple in the refrigerator?
    • Yes, there is.
    • No, there isn’t.
  2. Are there eggs in the refrigerator?
    • Yes, there are.
    • No, there aren’t.

5-6 There + Be:使用 How Many 來問問題

  1. How many chapters are there in this book?
    • Fifteen. (There are 15 chapters in this book.)
  2. How many provinces are there in Canada?
    • Ten. (There are ten provinces in Canada.)
  3. 注意:how many 後面接著的名詞是複數
    • How many words do you see?
    • 錯誤:How many word do you see?

5-7 地點的介系詞

  1. on = 介系詞,my desk = 介受詞,on my desk = 介詞短語
    • My book is on my desk.
  2. 一個人會 lives in a city / a state / a country / a continent, on a street / avenue / road 等等, at a street address
    • Ned lives in Miami. / in Florida. / in the United States. / in North America.
    • Meg lives on Hill Street.
    • She lives at 4472 Hill Street.
  3. in 用在房間裡面:in the kitchen, in the classroom, in the hall, in my bedroom 等等。
    • My father is in the kitchen.
  4. At + work, school, home 表達活動
    • Ivan is at work. => Ivan 在他的辦公室工作(或是其他工作地點)。
    • Yoko is at school. => Yoko 是一個學生,她正在學習(或者,他是老師,她正在教學)。
    • Olga is at home. => Olga 在家做事情。
  5. In + bed, class, hospital, jail,這些具有特殊的意義
    • Siri is in bed. => Siri 在棉被下正在休息或是睡覺。
    • Tim is in class. => Tim 正在學習(或是正在教書)。
    • Mr. Lee is in the hospital. => Mr. Lee 生病了,他是個病人。
    • Paul is in jail/prison. => Paul 是囚犯,他不能自由離開。
  6. 注意:美式英文 = in the hospital,英式英文 = in hospital.

5-8 更多地點的介系詞:清單

above beside in back of in the middle of on
around between in the back of inside on top of
at far (away) from in front of near outside
behind in in the front of next to under
below
  1. 在旁邊
    • The book is beside the cup.
    • The book is next to the cup.
    • The book is near the cup.
  2. 在中間
    • The book is between two cups.
  3. 離很遠
    • The book is far away from the cup.
  4. 在上面
    • The cup is on the book.
    • The cup is on top of the book.
  5. 在下面
    • The cup is under the book.
  6. 在上面(不接觸)
    • The cup is above the book.
  7. 在周圍
    • The hand is around the cup.
  8. 在後面
    • The man is in back of the bus.
    • The man is behind the bus.
  9. 在裡面的後面
    • The man is in the back of the bus. (男人在公車的後座上)
  10. 在前面
    • The man is in front of the bus.
  11. 在外面(8 和 10 都是在外面,可以用以下句子替代)
    • The man is outside the bus.
  12. 在裡面的前面
    • The man is in the front of the bus. (男人在公車的前座上)
  13. 在中間
    • The man is in the middle of the bus.
  14. 在裡面(9、12 和 13 都是在裡面,可以用以下句子替代)
    • The man is inside the bus.

5-9 Would like

  1. 以下例子的意思都一樣,但是 would like 通常比 want 更有禮貌,I would like 是比 I want 更好的說法。
    • I’m thirsty. I want a glass of water.
    • I’m thirsty. I would like a glass of water.
  2. 注意:would 不加結尾 -slike 不加結尾 -s
    • I would like / You would like / She would like / He would like / We would like / They would like a glass of water.
  3. would 在口說和寫作上都常常與代名詞一起縮寫,在口說中,would 也常常與名詞縮寫。寫作:Ray would like to come. / 口說: Ray’d like to come.
    • I’d = I would
    • you’d = you would
    • she’d = she would
    • he’d = he would
    • we’d = we would
    • they’d = they would
  4. 注意:would like 可以在後面加上不定詞
    • I would like to eat a sandwich.
  5. 在問句中,would 會在主詞之前
    • Would you like some tea?
  6. would 獨立用在對 would like 問句的短回答中。它在短回答中不能縮寫。
    • Yes, I would. (I would like some tea.)

5-10 Would Like 和 Like 比較

  1. I would like to go to the zoo 就是我想去動物園。would like 就表示我現在或未來想做某件事情。
  2. I like to go to the zoo 就是我喜歡動物園。like 就是我常常,通常或時常喜歡某件事情。

第六章 名詞和代名詞

6-1 名詞:主詞和受詞

  1. 一個名詞被用來當作句子的主詞;一個名詞被用來當作一個動詞的受詞(有些動詞後面可以接受詞,稱為及物動詞(v.t.),有些動詞後面不能接受詞,稱為不及物動詞(v.i.))。
  2. birds 是一個名詞,它被用來當作句子的主詞。
    • Birds fly.
  3. pen 是一個名詞,它前面有冠詞 aa pen 被用來當作動詞 is holding 的受詞。
    • Karl is holding a pen.

6-2 名詞當作介受詞

  1. 一個名詞也可以被用來介詞的受詞。
  2. in 是介系詞,名詞 sky (前面有冠詞 the) 是介系詞 in 的受詞。in the sky 是介詞短語(短語 = 一組文字)。
    • Birds fly in the sky.
  3. 注意:介詞短語緊接著在它所指示的名詞後面。錯誤:Karl is holding in his hand a pen.
    • Karl is holding a pen in his hand.
  4. 一些常見的介系詞
about between for near to
across by from of under
at during in on with

6-3 跟名詞在一起的形容詞

  1. 形容詞(adj.)描述一個名詞。在文法中,我們說形容詞修飾名詞,「修飾」就是只改變一點點,形容詞賦予一個名詞一點不一樣的意思:cold weather, hot weather, nice weather, bad weather。形容詞接在名詞前面。
    • I don’t like cold weather.
    • Alex is a happy child.
    • The hungry body has a fresh apple.
  2. 提醒:形容詞也可以接在 be 後面,形容詞描述一個句子的主詞。(參考 1-7)
    • The weather is cold.
  3. 常見的形容詞
beautiful - ugly good - bad angry hungry
big - little happy - sad bright important
big - small large - small busy intelligent
boring - interesting long - short delicious interesting
cheap - expensive noisy - quiet exciting kind
clean - dirty old - new famous lazy
cold - hot old - young favorite nervous
dangerous - safe poor - rich free nice
dry - wet sour - sweet fresh ripe
easy - hard strong - weak healthy serious
easy - difficult honest wonderful

6-4 主詞代詞和受詞代詞

  1. 主詞 - 受詞 / I - me / you - you / she - her / he - him / it - it / we - us / you - you / they - them
    • 主詞代詞 / 受詞代詞
    • I speak English / Bob knows me.
    • You speak English / Bob knows you.
    • She speaks English / Bob knows her.
    • He speaks English / Bob knows him.
    • It speaks English / Bob knows it.
    • We speak English / Bob talks us.
    • You speak English / Bob talks you.
    • They speak English / Bob talks them.
  2. 代名詞跟名詞有同樣的意思,HeTony 意思一樣;HimTony 意思一樣。在文法中,我們說代名詞指向一個名詞,代名詞 hehim 都指向名詞 Tony
    • I know Tony. He is a friendly person.
    • I like Tony. I know him well.
  3. 有時候代名詞指向一個名詞短語,it 指向整個短語 a red book
    • I have a red book. It is on my desk.

6-5 名詞:單數和複數形式

  1. 大部分的名詞變成複數,加 -s
    • 單數 / 複數
    • one pen / two pens
    • one apple / three apples
    • one cup / four cups
    • one elephant / five elephants
  2. 名詞結尾:子音 + -y,複數形式:去 yi,再加 -es
    • 單數 / 複數
    • baby / babies
    • city / cities
  3. 名詞結尾:母音 + -y,複數形式:加 -s
    • 單數 / 複數
    • boy / boys
    • key / keys
  4. 名詞結尾:-fe 或是 -f,複數形式:去 fv,加 -s 或是 -es
    • 單數 / 複數
    • wife / wives
    • thief / thieves
  5. 名詞結尾:-sh, -ch, -ss, -x,複數形式:加 -es,讀音:/əz/
    • 單數 / 複數
    • dish / dishes
    • match / matches
    • class / classes
    • box / boxes
  6. 名詞結尾:子音 + -o,複數形式:加 -es,名詞結尾:母音 + -o,複數形式:加 -s
    • 單數 / 複數
    • tomato / tomatoes
    • potato / patatoes
    • zoo / zoos
    • radio / radios

6-6 名詞:不規則複數形式

  1. 特殊的不規則複數形式,單數 / 複數。
    • child / children
    • 例:Mr. Smith has one child. / Mr. Cook has two children.
    • foot / feet
    • 例:I have a right foot and a left foot. I have two feet
    • man / men
    • 例:I see a man on the street. I see two men on the street.
    • mouse / mice
    • 例:My cat sees a mouse. Cats like to catch mice.
    • tooth / teeth
    • 例:My tooth hurts. My teeth are white.
    • woman / women
    • 例:There’s one woman in our class. There are ten women in your class.
  2. 同樣的不規則複數形式,單數 / 複數。
    • sheep / sheep
    • 例:Annie drew a picture of one sheep. Tommy drew a picture of two sheep.
    • fish / fish
    • 例:Bob has an aquarium. He has one fish. Sue has an aquarium. She has seven fish.
  3. 沒有單數形式的不規則複數形式,單數 / 複數。
    • (none)[people 永遠是複數,它沒有單數形] / people
    • 例:There are fifteen people in this room. (注意:people 不能有 -s)

6-7 所有格代名詞:Mine, Yours, His, Hers, Ours, Theirs

  1. 一個所有格形容詞會使用在一個名詞前面:my book。
    • This book belongs to me.
      • It is my book. (所有格形容詞)
      • It is mine. (所有格代名詞)
    • That book belongs to you.
      • It is your book. (所有格形容詞)
      • It is yours. (所有格代名詞)
  2. 一個所有格代名詞會獨立使用,後面不接任何名詞。
    • That book is mime.
    • 錯誤:That is mime book.
  3. 所有格形容詞和所有格代名詞
所有格形容詞 所有格代名詞
my mine
you yours
her hers
his his
our ours
their theirs

6-8 所有格名詞

  1. 表示一個人有某樣東西,加一個撇號(’)和 -s 在一個單數名詞後面。單數的所有格名詞:名詞 + 撇號(’) + -s
    • 單數名詞 / 所有格形式
    • friend / friend’s
    • My friend has a car. / My friend’s car is blue.
    • student / student’s
    • The student has a book. / The student’s book is red.
  2. 加一個撇號(’)在複數名詞後面(在 -s 後面)。複數的所有格名詞:名詞 + -s + 撇號(’)。
    • 複數名詞 / 所有格形式
    • students / students’
    • The students have books. / The students’ books are red.
    • friends / friends’
    • My friends have a car. / My friends’ car is blue.

6-9 使用 Whose 的問句

  1. Whose 問關於所有權的問題,Whose 常常和一個名詞一起使用。
    • Whose book is this?
    • Mine. / It’s mine. / It’s my book.
    • Whose books are these?
    • Rita’s. / They’re Rita’s. / They’re Rita’s books.
  2. 如果意思很清楚的話,Whose 可以在沒有名詞的情況下使用。
    • Whose is this? (說話者指向一本書)
    • Whose are these? (說話者指向一些書)
  3. Who’s = who isWhosewho’s 的發音一樣。
    • Who’s your teacher?

6-10 所有格:不規則複數形式

  1. 不規則複數名詞(children, men, women, people) 有不規則的複數所有格形式,撇號(’)會加在最後的 -s前面。規則複數所有格名詞:the students’ books,不規則複數所有格名詞:the women’s books。
    • The children’s toys are on the floor.
    • That store sells men’s clothing.
    • That store sells women’s clothing.
    • I like to know about other people’s lives.
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